Harm

Air Pollution

Levels of fine dust pollution could increase the risk of type 1 diabetes among children. (Institute for Diabetes Research at the Helmholtz Centre, 2015)

Traffic exhaust can shrink white matter in fetal brains and slow cognitive processing, attention deficit and hyperactivity during toddler stage. (JAMA Psychiatry, 2015)

Children who attend school in heavy traffic areas, such as next to an airport, may show slower cognitive development and lower memory test scores. (Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, 2015)

Greenhouse gas reduction targets may not be met if airports are allowed to expand. (Aviation Environment Federation, 2014)

Childhood asthma and chronic lung diseases are elevated and more likely near airports. (Massachusetts Department of Public Health and Bureau of Environmental Health, 2014)

Jet fuel exhaust contains black carbon, ultra-fine particulate matter (UPM) and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Black carbon has been associated with increased rates of lung diseases such as asthma and bronchitis, heart disease, sudden death and cancer. And elevated exposure to UPM is linked to inflammation of blood vessels and lung tissue. PAHs have been associated with increased cancer risk, disruptions in blood hormone levels, reproductive abnormalities in pregnant women and lower IQ scores in children. (Miriam Garfinkle and Susan Woolhouse, 2013)

Jet fuel exhaust can cause heart, lung and cancer risks, clots and inflammation, genetic disruption, hormonal imbalance, reproductive abnormalities, and lower IQ in children. (Santa Monica Airport HIA, 2010)

Airport air pollution and general operations close to surrounding neighbourhoods increases lifetime cancer risks in nearby residents by 22 times over the Environmental Protection Agency standard. (Santa Monica Airport HIA, 2010)

Fuel combustion particulate matter, including road and air traffic, is associated with lung cancer, cardiopulmonary disease, respiratory infections and death. (World Health Organization, 2013)

Air pollution may cause cardio vascular inflammation, exacerbate asthma, vascular and heath disease, lung cancer and it may lower lung capacity. (Dr. Pieter Jogovic, 2013)

Air pollution, each year, as a result of ozone is killing 470,000 people, and causing 2.1 million deaths in relation to fine particulate matter. Air pollution increases respiratory and heart disease risks in young, elderly and vulnerable populations. (Raquel A Silva, J Jason West, Yuqiang Zhang, Susan C. Anenberg, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, William J Collins, Stig Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth, 2013)

Water Pollution

Lakefilling over 100m3 will result in a Harmful Alteration or Destruction (HAAD) of fish habitat and this loss will require compensation. (City of Toronto Staff Report, 2013)

Runoff from de-icing chemicals poison and kill fish and wildlife.

Runway chemicals runoff into the lake. 

Fuel leakage and spillage from refuelling and storage contaminates ground water and storm water that runs off into the lake. 

Runoff from parking lots, building roofs, aprons and taxiways, and other areas with hard surfaces also run directly into the lake. 

Fuel dumping from flying aircraft pollutes the lake with kerosene. (UK Aviation Environment Federation, 2011)

Noise Pollution

Aircraft noise can cause sleep disturbance, reduced quality of life, and it may also increase morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. (Anna L Hansell, Marta Blangiardo, Lea Fortunato, Sarah Floud, Kees de Hoogh, Daniela Fecht, Rebecca E Ghosh, Helga E Laszlo, Clare Pearson, Linda Beale, Sean Beevers, John Gulliver, Nicky Best, Sylvia Richardson, Paul Elliott, 2013)

Aircraft noise can interfere with children’s reading, motivation, language and speech acquisition, and memory. (Federal Interagency Commission on Aviation Noise, 2007)

Jet aircraft noise can impair children’s longterm and short term memory, reading and speech perception. (Staffan Hygge, Gary W. Evans, Monika Bullinger, 2002)

Chronic aircraft noise correlates with children’s impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory. Annoyance from noise also implies impaired quality of life for children. (RANCH Project, 2005)

Persistent noise may hinder the development of babies by interfering with the growth of blood vessels in the brain. (Jaime Grutzendler, Christina Whiteus, Caterina Freitas, 2013)

Endangerment to Wildlife and Natural Habitat

Airport expansion on prime natural bird habitat and key migratory routes poses a long-term threat to migratory birds, including birds at risk of disappearing in Canada. (Friends of Toronto Waterfront Birds, 2010)

“If the island airport expansion is allowed to continue, the airport will play a major role in the destruction of a major natural habitat for wildlife in the city. A bird sanctuary exists less than one hundred metres from the longest airport runway. Several species of waterfowl make their homes along the shores. Fish abound in the waters. Turtles and frogs live in the island lagoons. Foxes, beavers, muskrats and raccoons are in abundance”. (CommunityAIR, 2013)

Safety Hazards

The provision of the RESA at the end of the runway will provide an area with an
opportunity for birds to loaf in proximity to deep water areas. This may be a
safety concern for the operation of the [Toronto island] airport. (City of Toronto Staff Report, 2013)

Two-engine jets are more susceptible to bird strikes than three and four engine aircraft. In addition, an eight-fold increase to the Canada Geese population further increases the threat of bird strikes. (Federal Aviation Administration, 2013)

Jet blast areas are in themselves a risk to boaters. (BBTCA Facts, 2013)

Jet blast can up-root vehicles, trees, heavy objects and people, therefore it can also endanger boaters in the adjacent channels. (Nasa, 1993)

Shorebirds at a waterfront airport represent a significant and serious danger to jet aircraft operation. (BBTCA Facts, 2013)

Fish habitat improvements near the airport may result in increased bird activity, requiring a wildlife management strategy. A wildlife management plan needs to be developed that includes strategies to address impacts to resident birds, specifically, the cormorant colony at Tommy Thompson Park. (City of Toronto, 2013)

Information and facts are offered as a guide to understanding why a Toronto island airport expansion is a bad idea. (BBTCA Facts, 2013)

Island airport expansion and introduction of jets is unhealthy and will do harm to our waterfront. (Dr. Pieter Jogovic, 2009)